Views:38 Author:Site Editor Publish Time: 2020-01-08 Origin:Site
Ophthalmoscope is an instrument for inspecting refractive interstitial and retina, and is an important and commonly used instrument in ophthalmology.
1. Indirect Ophthalmoscope
The commonly indirect ophthalmoscope is the head mounted indirect ophthalmoscope with 20d lens. It can enlarge the fundus of the eye by 4.5 times, and see the real image of handstand with a large range.
2. Direct Ophthalmoscope
It is the most commonly used inspection tool, also known as handheld ophthalmoscope.
(1) Working Principle of Direct Ophthalmoscope
The direct ophthalmoscope structure includes two parts, the lighting system and the observation system, which can enlarge the fundus image about 15-16 times, and you can see the upright image. Although the scope of the fundus that can be seen is small, it is more detailed and can be easily used to examine the refractive matrix of the eye.
(2) Inspection Method of Direct Ophthalmoscope
1) The examination should be performed in a dark room environment. If the patient is wearing glasses, the glasses should be removed for examination. For patients who are older or need to examine the fundus in detail, it is best to dilate the pupils before the conditions allow. When examining the right eye, hold the mirror with your right hand, stand on the right side of the patient, observe with the right eye, and inspect the left eye in the same way.
2) The degree can be adjusted on the fundus mirror. Beginners need to practice holding a mirror by the single hand before checking. Hold the fundus mirror fundus against the bridge of your nose or forehead, so that the line of sight can pass through the small hole smoothly, and the roulette is adjusted with one index finger to increase or decrease the degree. This step needs to be mastered skillfully.
3) First, use the side illumination method to check whether the refractive medium is turbid. Hold the fundus mirror, the method is the same as the second step, 10-15 cm from the patient's eyes, adjust the wheel disc to "+ 12D ~ + 20d", check the cornea and lens, and then use "+ 8D ~ + 10d" to observe the lens. Under normal conditions, it is observed that there is orange reflection in the pupil area. If there is dark shadow in the red reflection, ask the patient to rotate the eyeball. If the movement direction of the dark shadow is the same as that of the eyeball, it indicates that the turbid part is in front of the lens; if the movement direction is opposite, it indicates that the turbid part is behind the lens.
4) Due to the different diopters of each person,the wheel disc on the fundus mirror needs to be adjusted in order to see the fundus clearly, . However, due to cataract, the diopter of patient is mostly negative, so when starting the examination, generally adjust the wheel disc to the "0" scale first, and then rotate to the red direction.
5) When checking the fundus, ask the patient to look straight ahead. Because the fundus mirror follows the principle of "three points and one line", beginners often fail to see the fundus because they do not put the eye and fundus mirror inspection hole in the same line with the pupil of the patient.
1. Eye problems or diseases can be found.
2. Help to find other diseases or diseases that damage the eyes.
3. Look for the cause of some symptoms, such as headache.
4. Find other problems or diseases, such as head injury or brain tumor.
Nowadays, fundus photography is becoming more and more popular and examination methods emerge in endlessly. As the basic skill of clinical ophthalmologists, the application of ophthalmoscope is still irreplaceable. The examination of fundus diseases is dynamic. The fundus photography can only indicate the planar shape of the fundus lesions, and cannot demonstrate the dynamic process. Ophthalmoscopes almost perfectly meet the needs of ophthalmologists.